Cordova D, Mendoza Lua F, Muñoz-Velázquez J, Street K, Bauermeister JA, Fessler K, Adelman N, Neilands TB, Boyer CB. A multilevel mHealth drug abuse and STI/HIV preventive intervention for clinic settings in the United States: A feasibility and acceptability study. PLoS One. 2019; 14(8):e0221508.
Freeborn K, Portillo C, Boyer CB, Santos GM. Misclassification of sexual health risks in a self-identified low risk cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in a community based PrEP program. AIDS Care. 2019.
Boyer CB, Greenberg L, Korelitz J, Harper GW, Stewart-Campbell R, Straub D, Sanders R, Reid L-H, Futterman D, Lee S, Ellen JM, and the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN). Sexual Partner Characteristics, Relationship Type, and HIV Risk Among a Community Venue-based Sample of Urban Adolescent and Young Adult Men Who Have Sex with Men. Youth & Society. 2019; 2(51):219-246.
Chiaramonte D, Strzyzykowski T, Acevedo-Polakovich ID, Miller RM, Boyer CB, Ellen JM. Ecological Barriers to HIV Service Access among Young Men who have Sex with Men and High-Risk Heterosexual Young Women from Low-resourced Urban Communities. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services. 2018.
Chiaramonte D, Strzyzykowski T, Acevedo-Polakovich I, Miller RL, Boyer CB, Ellen JM. Ecological Barriers to HIV Service Access among Young Men who have Sex with Men and High-Risk Young Women from Low-resourced Urban Communities. J HIV AIDS Soc Serv. 2018; 17(4):313-333.
Miller RL, Strzyzykowski T, Lee KS, Chiaramonte D, Acevedo-Polakovich I, Spring H, Santiago-Rivera O, Boyer CB, Ellen JM. Structural Effects on HIV Risk Among Youth: A Multi-level Analysis. AIDS Behav. 2018 Nov; 22(11):3451-3467.
Boyer CB, Santiago Rivera OJ, Chiaramonte DM, Ellen JM. Examination of Behavioral, Social, and Environmental Contextual Influences on Sexually Transmitted Infections in At Risk, Urban, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Sex Transm Dis. 2018 08; 45(8):542-548.
Doll M, Fortenberry JD, Roseland D, McAuliff K, Wilson CM, Boyer CB. Linking HIV-Negative Youth to Prevention Services in 12 U.S. Cities: Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing the HIV Prevention Continuum. J Adolesc Health. 2018 04; 62(4):424-433.
Miller RL, Lee KS, Chiaramonte D, Santiago-Rivera OJ, Acevedo-Polakovich I, Boyer CB, Ellen JM. Youth health outcomes from the Connect-to-Protect Coalitions to prevent adolescent HIV infections. Vulnerable Child Youth Stud. 2018; 13(2):142-157.
Schillinger D, Ling PM, Fine S, Boyer CB, Rogers E, Vargas RA, Bibbins-Domingo K, Chou WS. Reducing Cancer and Cancer Disparities: Lessons From a Youth-Generated Diabetes Prevention Campaign. Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep; 53(3S1):S103-S113.
Miller RL, Reed SJ, Chiaramonte D, Strzyzykowski T, Spring H, Acevedo-Polakovich ID, Chutuape K, Cooper-Walker B, Boyer CB, Ellen JM. Structural and Community Change Outcomes of the Connect-to-Protect Coalitions: Trials and Triumphs Securing Adolescent Access to HIV Prevention, Testing, and Medical Care. Am J Community Psychol. 2017 Sep; 60(1-2):199-214.
Arrington-Sanders RA, Fields E, Greenberg L, Henry-Reid L, Pehoua SS, Korelitz J, Kapogiannis B, Ellen J, Boyer CB, and The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN).. Does Venue Type Matter for HIV-Related Risk Behavior in Urban Adolescent and Young Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men?. Youth & Society. 2017.
Miller RL, Boyer CB, Chiaramonte D, Lindeman P, Chutuape K, Cooper-Walker B, Kapogiannis BG, Wilson CM, Fortenberry JD. Evaluating Testing Strategies for Identifying Youths With HIV Infection and Linking Youths to Biomedical and Other Prevention Services. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 06 01; 171(6):532-537.
Boyer CB, Greenberg L, Chutuape K, Walker B, Monte D, Kirk J, Ellen JM. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context. J Community Health. 2017 Feb; 42(1):90-100.
Boyer CB, Greenberg L, Korelitz J, Harper GW, Stewart-Campbell R, Straub D, Sanders R, Reid LH, Futterman D, Lee S, Ellen JM. Sexual Partner Characteristics, Relationship Type, and HIV Risk Among a Community Venue-based Sample of Urban Adolescent and Young Adult Men Who Have Sex with Men. Youth Soc. 2019 Mar; 51(2):219-246.
Boyer CB, Walker BC, Chutuape KS, Roy J, Fortenberry JD. Creating Systems Change to Support Goals for HIV Continuum of Care: The Role of Community Coalitions to Reduce Structural Barriers for Adolescents and Young Adults. J HIV AIDS Soc Serv. 2016; 15(2):158-179.
Jackson DD, Ingram LA, Boyer CB, Robillard A, Huhns MN. Can Technology Decrease Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young People? Results of a Pilot Study Examining the Effectiveness of a Mobile Application Intervention. American Journal of Sexuality Education. 2016; 11(1):41-60.
Miller RL, Janulis PF, Reed SJ, Harper GW, Ellen J, Boyer CB. Creating Youth-Supportive Communities: Outcomes from the Connect-to-Protect® (C2P) Structural Change Approach to Youth HIV Prevention. J Youth Adolesc. 2016 Feb; 45(2):301-15.
Chutuape KS, Willard N, Walker BC, Boyer CB, Ellen J. A Tailored Approach to Launch Community Coalitions Focused on Achieving Structural Changes: Lessons Learned From a HIV Prevention Mobilization Study. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2015 Nov-Dec; 21(6):546-55.
Joffe A, Boyer CB, Britto MT. Call for Papers on Adolescent and Young Adult Health. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Aug; 169(8):714.
Willard N, Chutuape K, Stewart-Campbell R, Boyer CB, Ellen J. Targeting Structural Change for HIV Prevention: A Process and Tool for Community Application. Health Promot Pract. 2015 Nov; 16(6):837-48.
Ellen JM, Greenberg L, Willard N, Korelitz J, Kapogiannis BG, Monte D, Boyer CB, Harper GW, Henry-Reid LM, Friedman LB, Gonin R. Evaluation of the effect of human immunodeficiency virus-related structural interventions: the connect to protect project. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Mar; 169(3):256-63.
Blood EA, Trent M, Gordon CM, Goncalves A, Resnick M, Fortenberry JD, Boyer CB, Richardson L, Emans SJ. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship. Matern Child Health J. 2015 Feb; 19(2):308-13.
Ellen JM, Greenberg L, Willard N, Stines S, Korelitz J, Boyer CB. Cross-sectional survey comparing HIV risk behaviours of adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men only and men who have sex with men and women in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Sex Transm Infect. 2015 Sep; 91(6):458-61.
Nelson LE, Thach CT, Shelton MM, Boyer CB. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children. J Fam Nurs. 2015 Aug; 21(3):413-42.
Boyer CB, Robles-Schrader GM, Li SX, Miller RL, Korelitz J, Price GN, Rivera Torres CM, Chutuape KS, Stines SJ, Straub DM, Peralta L, Febo I, Hightow-Weidman L, Gonin R, Kapogiannis BG, Ellen JM. A comparison of network-based strategies for screening at-risk Hispanic/Latino adolescents and young adults for undiagnosed asymptomatic HIV infection. J Adolesc Health. 2014 Dec; 55(6):765-73.
Younge SN, Boyer CB, Geter A, Barker JC, Corneille M. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University. J Black Sex Relatsh. 2014; 1(1):65-96.
Pollack LM, Boyer CB, Weinstein ND. Perceived risk for sexually transmitted infections aligns with sexual risk behavior with the exception of condom nonuse: data from a nonclinical sample of sexually active young adult women. Sex Transm Dis. 2013 May; 40(5):388-94.
Boyer CB, Hightow-Weidman L, Bethel J, Li SX, Henry-Reid L, Futterman D, Maturo D, Straub DM, Howell K, Reid S, Lowe J, Kapogiannis BG, Ellen JM. An assessment of the feasibility and acceptability of a friendship-based social network recruitment strategy to screen at-risk African American and Hispanic/Latina young women for HIV infection. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Mar 01; 167(3):289-96.
Bangi AK, Dolcini MM, Harper GW, Boyer CB, Pollack LM. Assessing AIDS Risk Reduction Model Psychosocial Outcomes in a Brief Intervention for Urban African American Female Adolescents. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services. 2013; 2(12):146-159.
Bangi A, Dolcini MM, Harper GW, Boyer CB, Pollack LM. Psychosocial Outcomes of Sexual Risk Reduction in a Brief Intervention for Urban African American Female Adolescents. J HIV AIDS Soc Serv. 2013; 12(2):146-159.
Cornelius JB, Dmochowski J, Boyer C, St Lawrence J, Lightfoot M, Moore M. Text-messaging-enhanced HIV intervention for African American adolescents: a feasibility study. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2013 May-Jun; 24(3):256-67.
Reed SJ, Bangi A, Sheon N, Harper GW, Catania JA, Richards KA, Dolcini MM, Boyer CB. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships. Res Hum Dev. 2012; 9(1):78-101.
Harper GW, Timmons A, Motley DN, Tyler DH, Catania JA, Boyer CB, Dolcini MM. "It Takes a Village:" Familial Messages Regarding Dating Among African American Adolescents. Res Hum Dev. 2012 Mar 09; 9(1):29-53.
Choby AA, Dolcini MM, Catania JA, Boyer CB, Harper GW. African American Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety, Familial Strategies, and Sexual Debut. Res Hum Dev. 2012; 9(1):9-28.
Dolcini MM, Catania JA, Harper GW, Boyer CB, Richards KA. Sexual Health Information Networks: What are Urban African American Youth Learning? Res Hum Dev. 2012; 9(1):54-77.
Raine TR, Foster-Rosales A, Upadhyay UD, Boyer CB, Brown BA, Sokoloff A, Harper CC. One-year contraceptive continuation and pregnancy in adolescent girls and women initiating hormonal contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Feb; 117(2 Pt 1):363-71.
Cornelius JB, Cato M, Lawrence JS, Boyer CB, Lightfoot M. Development and pretesting multimedia HIV-prevention text messages for mobile cell phone delivery. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2011 Sep-Oct; 22(5):407-13.
Bouris A, Guilamo-Ramos V, Jaccard J, McCoy W, Aranda D, Pickard A, Boyer CB. The feasibility of a clinic-based parent intervention to prevent HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies among Latino and African American adolescents. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010 Jun; 24(6):381-7.
Raine TR, Gard JC, Boyer CB, Haider S, Brown BA, Ramirez Hernandez FA, Harper CC. Contraceptive decision-making in sexual relationships: young men's experiences, attitudes and values. Cult Health Sex. 2010 May; 12(4):373-86.
Dolcini MM, Harper GW, Boyer CB, Pollack LM. Project ORE: A friendship-based intervention to prevent HIV/STI in urban African American adolescent females. Health Educ Behav. 2010 Feb; 37(1):115-32.
Raine TR, Epstein LB, Harper CC, Brown BA, Boyer CB. Attitudes toward the vaginal ring and transdermal patch among adolescents and young women. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Sep; 45(3):262-7.
Gramkowski B, Kools S, Paul S, Boyer CB, Monasterio E, Robbins N. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2009 May; 22(2):77-85.
Pollack LM, Boyer CB, Betsinger K, Shafer MA. Predictors of one-year attrition in female Marine Corps recruits. Mil Med. 2009 Apr; 174(4):382-91.
Boyer CB, Pollack LM, Becnel J, Shafer MA. Relationships among sociodemographic markers, behavioral risk, and sexually transmitted infections in U. S. female Marine Corps recruits. Mil Med. 2008 Nov; 173(11):1078-84.
Bing EG, Cheng KG, Ortiz DJ, Ovalle-Bahamón RE, Ernesto F, Weiss RE, Boyer CB. Evaluation of a prevention intervention to reduce HIV Risk among Angolan soldiers. AIDS Behav. 2008 May; 12(3):384-95.
Shafer MA, Boyer CB, Pollack LM, Moncada J, Chang YJ, Schachter J. Acquisition of Chlamydia trachomatis by young women during their first year of military service. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Mar; 35(3):255-9.
Dolcini MM, Harper GW, Boyer CB, Watson SE, Anderson M, Pollack LM, Chang JY. Preliminary findings on a brief friendship-based HIV/STI intervention for urban African American youth: project ORE. J Adolesc Health. 2008 Jun; 42(6):629-33.
Garber AK, Boyer CB, Pollack LM, Chang YJ, Shafer MA. Body mass index and disordered eating behaviors are associated with weight dissatisfaction in adolescent and young adult female military recruits. Mil Med. 2008 Feb; 173(2):138-45.
Straub DM, Pomputius P, Boyer CB, Someillan NS, Perrin K. HIV prevention education and testing among youth: is there a correlation? J Adolesc Health. 2007 Jul; 41(1):105-7.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Pollack LM, Canchola J, Moncada J, Schachter. Correlates of sexually transmitted infections in women: Reply to Handsfield and Marrazzo. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2007; 195:303-305.
Hwang LY, Shafer MA, Pollack LM, Chang YJ, Boyer CB. Sexual behaviors after universal screening of sexually transmitted infections in healthy young women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan; 109(1):105-13.
Boyer CB, Sieverding J, Siller J, Gallaread A, Chang YJ. Youth United Through Health Education: community-level, peer-led outreach to increase awareness and improve noninvasive sexually transmitted infection screening in urban African American youth. J Adolesc Health. 2007 Jun; 40(6):499-505.
Boyer CB, Sebro NS, Wibbelsman C, Shafer MA. Acquisition of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents attending an urban, general HMO teen clinic. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Aug; 39(2):287-90.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Pollack LM, Canchola J, Moncada J, Schachter J. Sociodemographic markers and behavioral correlates of sexually transmitted infections in a nonclinical sample of adolescent and young adult women. J Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 01; 194(3):307-15.
Sieverding J, Boyer CB, Siller J, Gallaread A, Krone M, Chang YJ. Youth united through health education: building capacity through a community collaborative intervention to prevent HIV/STD in adolescents residing in a high STD prevalent neighborhood. AIDS Educ Prev. 2005 Aug; 17(4):375-85.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK, Pollack LM, Betsinger K, Chang YJ, Kraft HS, Schachter J. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral, group, randomized controlled intervention trial to prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies in young women. Prev Med. 2005 Apr; 40(4):420-31.
Ortiz DJ, Bing EG, Boyer CB, Russak SM, De Deus FJ, Ernesto F. Evidence-based recommendations for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections in the Angolan Armed Forces: challenges and opportunities at the end of 30 years of war. Mil Med. 2005 Apr; 170(4):327-32.
Bakhireva LN, Abebe Y, Brodine SK, Kraft HS, Shaffer RA, Boyer CB. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge and risk factors in Ethiopian military personnel. Mil Med. 2004 Mar; 169(3):221-6.
Halpern-Felsher BL, Kropp RY, Boyer CB, Tschann JM, Ellen JM. Adolescents' self-efficacy to communicate about sex: its role in condom attitudes, commitment, and use. Adolescence. 2004; 39(155):443-56.
Miller KS, Boyer CB, Cotton G. The STD and HIV epidemics in African American Youth: Reconceptualizing approaches to risk reduction. Journal of Black Psychology. 2004; 130(1):124-137.
Yen S, Shafer MA, Moncada J, Campbell CJ, Flinn SD, Boyer CB. Bacterial vaginosis in sexually experienced and non-sexually experienced young women entering the military. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Nov; 102(5 Pt 1):927-33.
Shafer MA, Moncada J, Boyer CB, Betsinger K, Flinn SD, Schachter J. Comparing first-void urine specimens, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical specimens to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a nucleic acid amplification test. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Sep; 41(9):4395-9.
Yen S, Shafer MA, Moncada J, Campbell CJ, Flinn SD, Boyer CB. Prevalence and clinical correlates of bacterial vaginosis among sexually experienced and non-sexually experienced young women entering the military. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003; 102(5):932-933.
Shafer MA, Boyer CB, Shaffer RA, Schachter J, Ito SI, Brodine SK. Correlates of sexually transmitted diseases in a young male deployed military population. Mil Med. 2002 Jun; 167(6):496-500.
Thomas AG, Brodine SK, Shaffer R, Shafer MA, Boyer CB, Putnam S, Schachter J. Chlamydial infection and unplanned pregnancy in women with ready access to health care. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Dec; 98(6):1117-23.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK, Ito SI, Yniguez DL, Benas DM, Schachter J. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in young military men: evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral skills-building intervention. Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Jun; 28(6):349-55.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Moncada J, Schachter J, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with STDs in a national sample of women entering the US military. ISSTDR: Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2001; 241-246.
Chaffee TA, Bridges M, Boyer CB. Adolescent violence prevention practices among California pediatricians. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Oct; 154(10):1034-41.
Boyer CB, Shafer M, Wibbelsman CJ, Seeberg D, Teitle E, Lovell N. Associations of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors with sexual risk and sexually transmitted diseases in teen clinic patients. J Adolesc Health. 2000 Aug; 27(2):102-11.
Boyer CB, Tschann JM, Shafer MA. Social factors play a major role in making you people sexual risk-takers. Family Planning Perspectives. 2000; 32(1):50-51.
Boyer CB, Tschann JM, Shafer MA. Predictors of risk for sexually transmitted diseases in ninth grade urban high school students. J Adolesc Res. 1999 Oct; 14(4):448-65.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Teitle E, Wibbelsman CJ, Seeberg D, Schachter J. Sexually transmitted diseases in a health maintenance organization teen clinic: associations of race, partner's age, and marijuana use. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Aug; 153(8):838-44.
Brodine SK, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA, Boyer CB, Putnam SD, Wignall FS, Thomas RJ, Bales B, Schachter J. Asymptomatic sexually transmitted disease prevalence in four military populations: application of DNA amplification assays for Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening. J Infect Dis. 1998 Oct; 178(4):1202-4.
Klausner JD, Barrett DC, Dithmer D, Boyer CB, Brooks GF, Bolan G. Risk factors for repeated gonococcal infections: San Francisco, 1990-1992. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jun; 177(6):1766-9.
Ellen JM, Vittinghoff E, Bolan G, Boyer CB, Padian NS. Perceptions of sexual partners' risk behavior. Journal of Sex Research. 1998; 35(4):328-323.
Boyer CB, Barrett DC, Peterman TA, Bolan G. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV risk in heterosexual adults attending a public STD clinic: evaluation of a randomized controlled behavioral risk-reduction intervention trial. AIDS. 1997 Mar; 11(3):359-67.
Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Tschann JM. Evaluation of a knowledge- and cognitive-behavioral skills-building intervention to prevent STDs and HIV infection in high school students. Adolescence. 1997; 32(125):25-42.
Ellen JM, Cahn S, Eyre SL, Boyer CB. Types of adolescent sexual relationships and associated perceptions about condom use. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Jun; 18(6):417-21.
Ellen JM, Boyer CB, Tschann JM, Shafer MA. Adolescents' perceived risk for STDs and HIV infection. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Mar; 18(3):177-81.
Boyer CB, Ellen JM. HIV risk in adolescents: the role of sexual activity and substance use behaviors. NIDA Res Monogr. 1994; 143:135-54.
Shafer MA, Schachter J, Moncada J, Keogh J, Pantell R, Gourlay L, Eyre S, Boyer CB. Evaluation of urine-based screening strategies to detect Chlamydia trachomatis among sexually active asymptomatic young males. JAMA. 1993 Nov 03; 270(17):2065-70.
Kipke MD, Boyer C, Hein K. An evaluation of an AIDS risk reduction education and skills training (ARREST) program. J Adolesc Health. 1993 Nov; 14(7):533-9.
Molbert W, Boyer CB, Shafer MA. Implementing a school-based STD/HIV prevention intervention: collaboration between a university medical center and an urban school district. J Sch Health. 1993 Aug; 63(6):258-61.
Shafer MA, Schachter J, Moncada J, Keogh J, Pantell R, Gourlay L, Eyre S, Boyer CB. Evaluation of non-specific and specific screening strategies to detect C trachomatis among sexually active asymptomatic young men. JAMA. 1993; 270(17):2065-2070.
Shafer MA, Schachter J, Moncada J, Keogh J, Pantell R, Gourlay L, Eyre S, Boyer CB. Infections B Chlamydia trachomatis chez l'adolescent: Une antibiotherapie bien conduite est efficace. Journal of the American Medical Association-French. 1993; 273(18):1049-1051.
Shafer MA, Boyer CB. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students. J Pediatr. 1991 Nov; 119(5):826-33.
Boyer CB, Kegeles SM. AIDS risk and prevention among adolescents. Soc Sci Med. 1991; 33(1):11-23.
Schlossberger N, Boyer CB, Shafer MA. Adolescent Pediatric Gynecology. AIDS education and the adolescent: Where have we been and where are we going?. 1990; 3:165-166.
Boyer CB, Friend R, Chlowerakis G, Kaloyanides G. Social support and demographic factors influencing compliance of hemodialysis patients. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1990; 20(22):1902-1918.
Brooks-Gunn J, Boyer CB, Hein K. Preventing HIV infection and AIDS in children and adolescents. Behavioral research and intervention strategies. Am Psychol. 1988 Nov; 43(11):958-64.
DiClemente RJ, Boyer CB, Morales ES. Minorities and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes, and misconceptions among black and Latino adolescents. Am J Public Health. 1988 Jan; 78(1):55-7.
DiClemente R, Boyer C, Mills S, Helquist M. Prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: International perspectives. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice. 1988; 3:3-5.