Diane Wara
Professor
Director, HIV Program
+1 415 476-2171
+1 415 476-3466

Biography

Diane Wara, MD, is a professor emeritus of pediatrics in the Allergy/Immunology Bone Marrow Transplant Division, director of the Northern California Pediatric HIV Program, and a member of the leadership group for the NIAID-funded domestic and international clinical trials program in HIV (IMPAACT). Her work, along with that of others, led to the successful strategy for the interruption of perinatal transmission in the developed world. Currently, she is working through IMPAACT to extend and modify successful strategies to prevent transmission throughout the developing world. Dr. Wara has authored more than180 publications and, throughout her career, has focused her research on the pathogenesis and treatment strategies of pediatric immune deficiency syndromes (PIDD) and pediatric HIV. She contributed to reports of the first child with adenosine deaminase deficiency as well as treatment strategies for this disorder, including the successful gene transfer in neonates with known ADA deficiency; the first child with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency; the first child with ZAP-70 deficiency; and mutations in IKK -gamma leading to NEMO syndrome. Dr. Wara contributed to reports of the first child with HIV, the first subject to acquire HIV from a blood transfusion, the first report of vertical transmission of hepatitis C, the role(s) of genetic factors as well as neutralizing antibody in the perinatal transmission of HIV as well as long-term progression; the detection and diagnosis of in-utero versus peripartum transmission. She reported the successful interruption of HIV perinatal transmission by the use of intrapartum AZT to the mother and infant prophylaxis for 6 weeks; she reported numerous successful HIV treatment strategies for children and youth. Dr. Wara led the Immunology Division and the UCSF Pediatric Clinical Research Center for over 25 years. She served as member and chair of two NIH study sections as well as member and chair of the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (2002-2006). Dr. Wara was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, in 1998.

Education and Training

M.D., 1969 School of Medicine, University of California Irvine
Residency, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

Publications

Weinberg A, Huo Y, Kacanek D, Patel K, Watts DH, Wara D, Hoffman RM, Klawitter J, Christians U. Brief Report: Markers of Spontaneous Preterm Delivery in Women Living With HIV: Relationship With Protease Inhibitors and Vitamin D. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 10 01; 82(2):181-187.
Rutar T, Youm J, Porco T, Tilton N, Muskat M, McNamara N, Wara D. Ophthalmic manifestations of perinatally acquired HIV in a US cohort of long-term survivors. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 May; 99(5):650-3.
Thomas MR, Wara D, Saxton K, Truskier M, Chesney MA, Boyce WT. Family adversity and autonomic reactivity association with immune changes in HIV-affected school children. Psychosom Med. 2013 Jul-Aug; 75(6):557-65.
Wilson LS, Hensic L, Paoli CJ, Basu R, Christenson M, Moskowitz JT, Wara D. The effect of prophylaxis on pediatric HIV costs. AIDS Care. 2012; 24(1):108-18.
Ma CA, Wang HY, Temmerman S, Zhao Y, Wu L, Hornung RL, Wara D, Jain A. Dendritic cells from humans with hypomorphic mutations in IKBKG/NEMO have impaired mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Hum Mutat. 2011 Mar; 32(3):318-24.
Weinberg A, Song LY, Walker R, Allende M, Fenton T, Patterson-Bartlett J, Nachman S, Kemble G, Yi TT, Defechereux P, Wara D, Read JS, Levin M. Anti-influenza serum and mucosal antibody responses after administration of live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccines to HIV-infected children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Oct; 55(2):189-96.
Wilson LS, Basu R, Christenson M, Hensic L, Paoli C, Wara D, Moskowitz JT. Pediatric HIV costs across three treatment eras from 1986 to 2007. Pediatrics. 2010 Sep; 126(3):e541-9.
Cheng LE, Kanwar B, Tcheurekdjian H, Grenert JP, Muskat M, Heyman MB, McCune JM, Wara DW. Persistent systemic inflammation and atypical enterocolitis in patients with NEMO syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2009 Jul; 132(1):124-31.
Butensky James E, Harmatz P, Lee M, Kennedy C, Petru A, Wara D, Miaskowski C. Altered iron metabolism in children with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009 Mar; 26(2):69-84.
Milojevic D, Nguyen KD, Wara D, Mellins ED. Regulatory T cells and their role in rheumatic diseases: a potential target for novel therapeutic development. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2008 Dec 01; 6:20.
Tremoulet AH, Capparelli EV, Patel P, Acosta EP, Luzuriaga K, Bryson Y, Wara D, Zorrilla C, Holland D, Mirochnick M. Population pharmacokinetics of lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and -infected infants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Dec; 51(12):4297-302.
Pahwa S, Muresan P, Sleasman J, Fenton T, Moye J, Deveikis A, Wara D, Van Dyke R. Phase I/II trial of intermittent subcutaneous IL-2 administration in pediatric patients with moderate immune suppression: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Study 402. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jun; 119(6):1538-41.
Hecht JH, Glenn OA, Wara DW, Wu YW. JC virus granule cell neuronopathy in a child with CD40 ligand deficiency. Pediatr Neurol. 2007 Mar; 36(3):186-9.
Unadkat JD, Wara DW, Hughes MD, Mathias AA, Holland DT, Paul ME, Connor J, Huang S, Nguyen BY, Watts DH, Mofenson LM, Smith E, Deutsch P, Kaiser KA, Tuomala RE. Pharmacokinetics and safety of indinavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Feb; 51(2):783-6.
Taylor Z, Butani L, Blumberg D, Cowan M, Wara D, Gopal S, Gavrilita C, Da-Silva S. Index of suspicion. Pediatr Rev. 2006 Dec; 27(12):463-9.
Zhang H, Schaff UY, Green CE, Chen H, Sarantos MR, Hu Y, Wara D, Simon SI, Lowell CA. Impaired integrin-dependent function in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-deficient murine and human neutrophils. Immunity. 2006 Aug; 25(2):285-95.
Weinberg A, Gona P, Nachman SA, Defechereux P, Yogev R, Hughes W, Wara D, Spector SA, Read J, Elgie C, Cooper M, Dankner W. Antibody responses to hepatitis A virus vaccine in HIV-infected children with evidence of immunologic reconstitution while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 15; 193(2):302-11.
Chan B, Wara D, Bastian J, Hershfield MS, Bohnsack J, Azen CG, Parkman R, Weinberg K, Kohn DB. Long-term efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Clin Immunol. 2005 Nov; 117(2):133-43.
Cohan D, Feakins C, Wara D, Petru A, McNicholl I, Schillinger D, Lu J, Kuritzkes D, Deeks SG. Perinatal transmission of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite viral suppression on an enfuvirtide-based treatment regimen. AIDS. 2005 Jun 10; 19(9):989-90.
von Scheven E, Lu TT, Emery HM, Elder ME, Wara DW. Thrombosis and pediatric Wegener's granulomatosis: acquired and genetic risk factors for hypercoagulability. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Dec 15; 49(6):862-5.
Shearer WT, Rosenblatt HM, Gelman RS, Oyomopito R, Plaeger S, Stiehm ER, Wara DW, Douglas SD, Luzuriaga K, McFarland EJ, Yogev R, Rathore MH, Levy W, Graham BL, Spector SA. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy children from birth through 18 years of age: the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov; 112(5):973-80.
Lester P, Chesney M, Cooke M, Weiss R, Whalley P, Perez B, Glidden D, Petru A, Dorenbaum A, Wara D. When the time comes to talk about HIV: factors associated with diagnostic disclosure and emotional distress in HIV-infected children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Nov 01; 31(3):309-17.
Bickel J, Wara D, Atkinson BF, Cohen LS, Dunn M, Hostler S, Johnson TR, Morahan P, Rubenstein AH, Sheldon GF, Stokes E. Increasing women's leadership in academic medicine: report of the AAMC Project Implementation Committee. Acad Med. 2002 Oct; 77(10):1043-61.
Tuomala RE, Shapiro DE, Mofenson LM, Bryson Y, Culnane M, Hughes MD, O'Sullivan MJ, Scott G, Stek AM, Wara D, Bulterys M. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and the risk of an adverse outcome. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 13; 346(24):1863-70.
McFarland EJ, Borkowsky W, Fenton T, Wara D, McNamara J, Samson P, Kang M, Mofenson L, Cunningham C, Duliege AM, Sinangil F, Spector SA, Jimenez E, Bryson Y, Burchett S, Frenkel LM, Yogev R, Gigliotti F, Luzuriaga K, Livingston RA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120-specific antibodies in neonates receiving an HIV-1 recombinant gp120 vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 15; 184(10):1331-5.
Cunningham CK, Wara DW, Kang M, Fenton T, Hawkins E, McNamara J, Mofenson L, Duliege AM, Francis D, McFarland EJ, Borkowsky W. Safety of 2 recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in neonates born to HIV-1-infected women. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 01; 32(5):801-7.
Morahan PS, Voytko ML, Abbuhl S, Means LJ, Wara DW, Thorson J, Cotsonas CE. Ensuring the success of women faculty at AMCs: lessons learned from the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health. Acad Med. 2001 Jan; 76(1):19-31.
Shearer WT, Israel RJ, Starr S, Fletcher CV, Wara D, Rathore M, Church J, DeVille J, Fenton T, Graham B, Samson P, Staprans S, McNamara J, Moye J, Maddon PJ, Olson WC. Recombinant CD4-IgG2 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children: phase 1/2 study. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 351 Study Team. J Infect Dis. 2000 Dec; 182(6):1774-9.
Zonana J, Elder ME, Schneider LC, Orlow SJ, Moss C, Golabi M, Shapira SK, Farndon PA, Wara DW, Emmal SA, Ferguson BM. A novel X-linked disorder of immune deficiency and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is allelic to incontinentia pigmenti and due to mutations in IKK-gamma (NEMO). Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Dec; 67(6):1555-62.
Kliks S, Contag CH, Corliss H, Learn G, Rodrigo A, Wara D, Mullins JI, Levy JA. Genetic analysis of viral variants selected in transmission of human immunodeficiency viruses to newborns. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Sep 01; 16(13):1223-33.
Betensky RA, Connick E, Devers J, Landay AL, Nokta M, Plaeger S, Rosenblatt H, Schmitz JL, Valentine F, Wara D, Weinberg A, Lederman HM. Shipment impairs lymphocyte proliferative responses to microbial antigens. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000 Sep; 7(5):759-63.
Fahey JL, Aziz N, Spritzler J, Plaeger S, Nishanian P, Lathey JL, Seigel J, Landay AL, Kilarui R, Schmitz JL, White C, Wara DW, Akridge R, Cutili J, Douglas SD, Reuben J, Shearer WT, Nokta M, Polland R, Schooley R, Asthana D, Mizrachi Y, Waxdal M. Need for an external proficiency testing program for cytokines, chemokines, and plasma markers of immune activation. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000 Jul; 7(4):540-8.
Borkowsky W, Wara D, Fenton T, McNamara J, Kang M, Mofenson L, McFarland E, Cunningham C, Duliege AM, Francis D, Bryson Y, Burchett S, Spector SA, Frenkel LM, Starr S, Van Dyke R, Jimenez E. Lymphoproliferative responses to recombinant HIV-1 envelope antigens in neonates and infants receiving gp120 vaccines. AIDS Clinical Trial Group 230 Collaborators. J Infect Dis. 2000 Mar; 181(3):890-6.
Ramos-Gomez FJ, Petru A, Hilton JF, Canchola AJ, Wara D, Greenspan JS. Oral manifestations and dental status in paediatric HIV infection. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2000 Mar; 10(1):3-11.
Stiehm ER, Fletcher CV, Mofenson LM, Palumbo PE, Kang M, Fenton T, Sapan CV, Meyer WA, Shearer WT, Hawkins E, Fowler MG, Bouquin P, Purdue L, Sloand EM, Nemo GJ, Wara D, Bryson YJ, Starr SE, Petru A, Burchett S. Use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin in HIV type 1-infected children (Pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 273). J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb; 181(2):548-54.
Seroogy CM, Wara DW, Bluth MH, Dorenbaum A, White C, Durkin HG, Elder ME. Cytokine profile of a long-term pediatric HIV survivor with hyper-IgE syndrome and a normal CD4 T-cell count. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Nov; 104(5):1045-51.
Mirochnick M, Cooper E, McIntosh K, Xu J, Lindsey J, Jacobus D, Mofenson L, Sullivan JL, Dankner W, Frenkel LM, Nachman S, Wara DW, Johnson D, Bonagura VR, Rathore MH, Cunningham CK, McNamara J. Pharmacokinetics of dapsone administered daily and weekly in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Nov; 43(11):2586-91.
Franck LS, Johnson LM, Lee K, Hepner C, Lambert L, Passeri M, Manio E, Dorenbaum A, Wara D. Sleep disturbances in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. 1999 Nov; 104(5):e62.
Wright PF, Lambert JS, Gorse GJ, Hsieh RH, McElrath MJ, Weinhold K, Wara DW, Anderson EL, Keefer MC, Jackson S, Wagner LJ, Francis DP, Fast PE, McNamara J. Immunization with envelope MN rgp120 vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. J Infect Dis. 1999 Oct; 180(4):1080-8.
Dunbar C, Chang L, Mullen C, Ramsey WJ, Carter C, Kohn D, Parkman R, Lenarsky C, Weinberg K, Wara D, Culver KW, Anderson WF, Leitman S, Fleisher T, Klein H, Shearer G, Clerici M, McGarrity G, Bastian J, Hershfield MS. Amendment to Clinical Research Project. Project 90-C-195. April 1, 1993. Treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase deficiency with autologous lymphocytes transduced with a human ADA gene. Hum Gene Ther. 1999 Feb 10; 10(3):477-88.
Wilfert C, Aronson JE, Beck DT, Fleischman AR, Kline MW, Mofenson LM, Scott GB, Wara DW, Whitley-Williams PN. Planning for children whose parents are dying of HIV/AIDS. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Pediatric AIDS, 1998-1999. Pediatrics. 1999 Feb; 103(2):509-11.
Lambert JS, McNamara J, Katz SL, Fenton T, Kang M, VanCott TC, Livingston R, Hawkins E, Moye J, Borkowsky W, Johnson D, Yogev R, Duliege AM, Francis D, Gershon A, Wara D, Martin N, Levin M, McSherry G, Smith G. Safety and immunogenicity of HIV recombinant envelope vaccines in HIV-infected infants and children. National Institutes of Health-sponsored Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG-218). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Dec 15; 19(5):451-61.
McKinney RE, Johnson GM, Stanley K, Yong FH, Keller A, O'Donnell KJ, Brouwers P, Mitchell WG, Yogev R, Wara DW, Wiznia A, Mofenson L, McNamara J, Spector SA. A randomized study of combined zidovudine-lamivudine versus didanosine monotherapy in children with symptomatic therapy-naive HIV-1 infection. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300 Study Team. J Pediatr. 1998 Oct; 133(4):500-8.
Kohn DB, Hershfield MS, Carbonaro D, Shigeoka A, Brooks J, Smogorzewska EM, Barsky LW, Chan R, Burotto F, Annett G, Nolta JA, Crooks G, Kapoor N, Elder M, Wara D, Bowen T, Madsen E, Snyder FF, Bastian J, Muul L, Blaese RM, Weinberg K, Parkman R. T lymphocytes with a normal ADA gene accumulate after transplantation of transduced autologous umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells in ADA-deficient SCID neonates. Nat Med. 1998 Jul; 4(7):775-80.
Levy JA, Hsueh F, Blackbourn DJ, Wara D, Weintrub PS. CD8 cell noncytotoxic antiviral activity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected children. J Infect Dis. 1998 Feb; 177(2):470-2.
Williams GH, Wara DW, Carbone P. Funding for patient-oriented research. Critical strain on a fundamental linchpin. JAMA. 1997 Jul 16; 278(3):227-31.
Chen Y, Winchester R, Korber B, Gagliano J, Bryson Y, Hutto C, Martin N, McSherry G, Petru A, Wara D, Ammann A. Influence of HLA alleles on the rate of progression of vertically transmitted HIV infection in children: association of several HLA-DR13 alleles with long-term survivorship and the potential association of HLA-A*2301 with rapid progression to AIDS. Long-Term Survivor Study. Hum Immunol. 1997 Jul; 55(2):154-62.
Spector SA, Blanchard S, Wara DW, Oleske JM, McIntosh K, Hodes D, Dankner WM, Salgo M, McNamara J. Comparative trial of two dosages of zalcitabine in zidovudine-experienced children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997 Jun; 16(6):623-6.
Dorenbaum A, Venkateswaran KS, Yang G, Comeau AM, Wara D, Vyas GN. Transmission of HIV-1 in infants born to seropositive mothers: PCR-amplified proviral DNA detected by flow cytometric analysis of immunoreactive beads. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997 May 01; 15(1):35-42.
Nielsen K, McSherry G, Petru A, Frederick T, Wara D, Bryson Y, Martin N, Hutto C, Ammann AJ, Grubman S, Oleske J, Scott GB. A descriptive survey of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-infected long-term survivors. Pediatrics. 1997 Apr; 99(4):E4.
Liang SW, Jemerin JM, Tschann JM, Wara DW, Boyce WT. Life events, frontal electroencephalogram laterality, and functional immune status after acute psychological stressors in adolescents. Psychosom Med. 1997 Mar-Apr; 59(2):178-86.
Englund JA, Baker CJ, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Lifschitz MH, Petrie B, Fowler MG, Connor JD, Mendez H, O'Donnell K, Wara DW. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of a large cohort of symptomatic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected infants and children. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 152 Study Team. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Nov; 15(11):1025-36.
McIntosh K, Comeau AM, Wara D, Diaz C, Landesman S, Pitt J, Rich K, Lew J, Moye J, Kalish LA. The utility of IgA antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in early diagnosis of vertically transmitted infection. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996 Jun; 150(6):598-602.
Chou RH, Wong GB, Kramer JH, Wara DW, Matthay KK, Crittenden MR, Swift PS, Cowan MJ, Wara WM. Toxicities of total-body irradiation for pediatric bone marrow transplantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996 Mar 01; 34(4):843-51.
Boyce WT, Adams S, Tschann JM, Cohen F, Wara D, Gunnar MR. Adrenocortical and behavioral predictors of immune responses to starting school. Pediatr Res. 1995 Dec; 38(6):1009-17.
Liang SW, Jemerin JM, Tschann JM, Irwin CE, Wara DW, Boyce WT. Life events, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk behavior in adolescent boys. Pediatrics. 1995 Dec; 96(6):1101-5.
Just JJ, Abrams E, Louie LG, Urbano R, Wara D, Nicholas SW, Stein Z, King MC. Influence of host genotype on progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Pediatr. 1995 Oct; 127(4):544-9.
Elder ME, Hope TJ, Parslow TG, Umetsu DT, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Severe combined immunodeficiency with absence of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells due to ZAP-70 deficiency. Cell Immunol. 1995 Oct 01; 165(1):110-7.
Boyce WT, Chesney M, Alkon A, Tschann JM, Adams S, Chesterman B, Cohen F, Kaiser P, Folkman S, Wara D. Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: results of two prospective studies. Psychosom Med. 1995 Sep-Oct; 57(5):411-22.
Brandeis JM, Baskin LS, Kogan BA, Wara D, Dorenbaum A. Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus renal abscess in a child positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Urology. 1995 Aug; 46(2):246-8.
Spector SA, Gelber RD, McGrath N, Wara D, Barzilai A, Abrams E, Bryson YJ, Dankner WM, Livingston RA, Connor EM. A controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin for the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children receiving zidovudine for advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 03; 331(18):1181-7.
Rautonen N, Rautonen J, Martin NL, Wara DW. HIV-1 Tat induces cytokine synthesis by uninfected mononuclear cells. AIDS. 1994 Oct; 8(10):1504-6.
Kliks SC, Wara DW, Landers DV, Levy JA. Features of HIV-1 that could influence maternal-child transmission. JAMA. 1994 Aug 10; 272(6):467-74.
Jenkins M, Landers D, Williams-Herman D, Wara D, Viscarello RR, Hammill HA, Kline MW, Shearer WT, Charlebois ED, Kohl S. Association between anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody titers at birth and vertical transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 1994 Aug; 170(2):308-12.
Rautonen J, Rautonen N, Martin NL, Wara DW. HIV type 1 Tat protein induces immunoglobulin and interleukin 6 synthesis by uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Jul; 10(7):781-5.
Rautonen N, White C, Martin NL, Wara DW, Salo E, Pelkonen P, Rautonen J. Antibodies in HIV Tat in Kawasaki disease. Lancet. 1994 Apr 09; 343(8902):920-1.
Benkerrou M, Wara DW, Elder M, Dror Y, Merino A, Colombe BW, Garovoy M, Cowan MJ. Anti-tetanus toxoid antibody production after mismatched T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Immunol. 1994 Mar; 14(2):98-106.
Rosendorf LL, Dafni U, Amato DA, Lunghofer B, Bartlett JG, Leedom JM, Wara DW, Armstrong JA, Godfrey E, Sukkestad E. Performance evaluation in multicenter clinical trials: development of a model by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Control Clin Trials. 1993 Dec; 14(6):523-37.
Wara DW, Luzuriaga K, Martin NL, Sullivan JL, Bryson YJ. Maternal transmission and diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus during infancy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Oct 29; 693:14-9.
Boyce WT, Chesterman EA, Martin N, Folkman S, Cohen F, Wara D. Immunologic changes occurring at kindergarten entry predict respiratory illnesses after the Loma Prieta earthquake. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1993 Oct; 14(5):296-303.
Dror Y, Gallagher R, Wara DW, Colombe BW, Merino A, Benkerrou M, Cowan MJ. Immune reconstitution in severe combined immunodeficiency disease after lectin-treated, T-cell-depleted haplocompatible bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1993 Apr 15; 81(8):2021-30.
Siller L, Martin NL, Kostuchenko P, Beckett L, Rautonen J, Cheng SC, Wara DW. Serum levels of soluble CD8, neopterin, beta 2-microglobulin and p24 antigen as indicators of disease progression in children with AIDS on zidovudine therapy. AIDS. 1993 Mar; 7(3):369-73.
Weintrub PS, Wara DW, Duliege AM. Failure of intravenous pentamidine prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Pediatr. 1993 Jan; 122(1):163-4.
Rautonen N, Martin NL, Rautonen J, Rooks Y, Mentzer WC, Wara DW. Low number of antibody producing cells in patients with sickle cell anemia. Immunol Lett. 1992 Dec; 34(3):207-11.
Bryson YJ, Luzuriaga K, Sullivan JL, Wara DW. Proposed definitions for in utero versus intrapartum transmission of HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 1992 Oct 22; 327(17):1246-7.
Schiødt M, Dodd CL, Greenspan D, Daniels TE, Chernoff D, Hollander H, Wara D, Greenspan JS. Natural history of HIV-associated salivary gland disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992 Sep; 74(3):326-31.
Wiencke JK, Wara DW, Little JB, Kelsey KT. Heterogeneity in the clastogenic response to X-rays in lymphocytes from ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes and controls. Cancer Causes Control. 1992 May; 3(3):237-45.
Just J, Louie L, Abrams E, Nicholas SW, Wara D, Stein Z, King MC. Genetic risk factors for perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1992 Apr; 6(2):215-24.
Martin NL, Rautonen J, Crombleholme W, Rautonen N, Wara DW. A screening test for the detection of anti-HIV-1 IgA in young infants. Immunol Invest. 1992 Feb; 21(1):65-70.
Epling CL, Stites DP, McHugh TM, Chong HO, Blackwood LL, Wara DW. Neutrophil function screening in patients with chronic granulomatous disease by a flow cytometric method. Cytometry. 1992; 13(6):615-20.
Rautonen J, Rautonen N, Martin NL, Philip R, Wara DW. Serum interleukin-6 concentrations are elevated and associated with elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and immunoglobulin G and A concentrations in children with HIV infection. AIDS. 1991 Nov; 5(11):1319-25.
Thaler MM, Park CK, Landers DV, Wara DW, Houghton M, Veereman-Wauters G, Sweet RL, Han JH. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus. Lancet. 1991 Jul 06; 338(8758):17-8.
Rautonen J, Martin NI, Rautonen N, Wara DW. Neopterin in diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Apr; 29(4):850-1.
Martin NL, Levy JA, Legg H, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW. Detection of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in infants by an anti-HIV immunoglobulin A assay using recombinant proteins. J Pediatr. 1991 Mar; 118(3):354-8.
Halberg FE, Wara WM, Weaver KE, Wara DW, Ablin AR, Matthay KK, Mentzer WC, O'Leary MC, Cowan MJ. Total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for immunodeficiency disorders in young children. Radiother Oncol. 1990; 18 Suppl 1:114-7.
Curry CJ, O'Lague P, Tsai J, Hutchison HT, Jaspers NG, Wara D, Gatti RA, Hutchinson HT. ATFresno: a phenotype linking ataxia-telangiectasia with the Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1989 Aug; 45(2):270-5.
Schiødt M, Greenspan D, Daniels TE, Nelson J, Leggott PJ, Wara DW, Greenspan JS. Parotid gland enlargement and xerostomia associated with labial sialadenitis in HIV-infected patients. J Autoimmun. 1989 Aug; 2(4):415-25.
Edwards JR, Ulrich PP, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Levy JA, Wara DW, Vyas GN. Polymerase chain reaction compared with concurrent viral cultures for rapid identification of human immunodeficiency virus infection among high-risk infants and children. J Pediatr. 1989 Aug; 115(2):200-3.
Silverman S, Wara D. Oral manifestations of pediatric AIDS. Pediatrician. 1989; 16(3-4):185-7.
Cowan MJ, Walker C, Culver K, Weintrub PS, Wara DW, Levy JA. Maternally transmitted HIV infection in children. AIDS. 1988 Dec; 2(6):437-41.
English BK, Burchett SK, English JD, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Wilson CB. Production of lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor by human neonatal mononuclear cells. Pediatr Res. 1988 Dec; 24(6):717-22.
Cowan MJ, Shannon KM, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Rejection of bone marrow transplant and resistance of alloantigen reactive cells to in vivo deoxyadenosine in adenosine deaminase deficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988 Nov; 49(2):242-50.
Ray PE, Rigolizzo D, Wara DR, Piel CF. Naproxen nephrotoxicity in a 2-year-old child. Am J Dis Child. 1988 May; 142(5):524-5.
Culver KW, Ammann AJ, Partridge JC, Wong DF, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Lymphocyte abnormalities in infants born to drug-abusing mothers. J Pediatr. 1987 Aug; 111(2):230-5.
Rutherford GW, Oliva GE, Grossman M, Green JR, Wara DW, Shaw NS, Echenberg DF, Wofsy CB, Weinstein DH, Stroud F. Guidelines for the control of perinatally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection and care of infected mothers, infants and children. West J Med. 1987 Jul; 147(1):104-8.
Leggott PJ, Robertson PB, Greenspan D, Wara DW, Greenspan JS. Oral manifestation of primary and acquired immunodeficiency diseases in children. Pediatr Dent. 1987 Jun; 9(2):98-104.
Matthay K, Wara DW, Ablin AJ, Cowan MJ. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation using soybean agglutinin-processed, T-depleted marrow. Transplant Proc. 1987 Feb; 19(1 Pt 3):2678-9.
Cowan MJ, McHugh T, Smith W, Wara D, Matthay K, Ablin A, Casavant C, Stites D. Lymphocyte reconstitution in children receiving soybean agglutinin T-depleted bone marrow transplants. Transplant Proc. 1987 Feb; 19(1 Pt 3):2744.
Ammann AJ, Cowan M, Wara D, Heyman M, Thaler MM, Buckley R, Lawton A, Vogler LB, Hirschhorn R. Alpha-fetoprotein levels in immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 1986 Mar 13; 314(11):717-8.
Lee SI, Heiner DC, Wara D. Development of serum IgG subclass levels in children. Monogr Allergy. 1986; 19:108-21.
Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Weintrub PS, Pabst H, Ammann AJ. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency disease using soybean agglutinin-negative, T-depleted marrow cells. J Clin Immunol. 1985 Nov; 5(6):370-6.
Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Deoxycytidine therapy in two patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency and severe immunodeficiency disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1985 Oct; 37(1):30-6.
Ammann AJ, Johnson A, Fyfe GA, Leonards R, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Behçet syndrome. J Pediatr. 1985 Jul; 107(1):41-3.
Wara DW. Immune regulation: what immunodeficiency disease has taught us. J Invest Dermatol. 1985 Jul; 85(1 Suppl):149s-154s.
Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Schiffman G, Artrip SG, Ammann AJ. Maternal-fetal transfer of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antibodies. Am J Dis Child. 1985 Apr; 139(4):378-80.
Crawford DH, Weller I, Iliescu V, Wara DW. Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection in homosexual men in London. Br J Vener Dis. 1984 Aug; 60(4):258-64.
Matthay KK, Golbus MS, Wara DW, Mentzer WC. Prenatal diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease. Am J Med Genet. 1984 Apr; 17(4):731-9.
Ochs HD, Fischer SH, Wedgwood RJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ, Saxon A, Budinger MD, Allred RU, Rousell RH. Comparison of high-dose and low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. Am J Med. 1984 Mar 30; 76(3A):78-82.
Cowan MJ, Hellmann D, Chudwin D, Wara DW, Chang RS, Ammann AJ. Maternal transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pediatrics. 1984 Mar; 73(3):382-6.
Cowan MJ, Martin DW, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Intravenous deoxycytidine therapy in a patient with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1984; 165 Pt A:39-45.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1984; 437:340-9.
Chudwin DS, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Wara DW. Significance of a positive antinuclear antibody test in a pediatric population. Am J Dis Child. 1983 Nov; 137(11):1103-6.
Hellmann D, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Chudwin D, Chang RS. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infections in two immunodeficient patients. J Pediatr. 1983 Oct; 103(4):585-8.
Chudwin DS, Cowan MJ, Greenberg PL, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Response of agranulocytosis to prolonged antithymocyte globulin therapy. J Pediatr. 1983 Aug; 103(2):223-7.
Savouret JF, Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Miller WL. Clinical and laboratory findings in childhood mixed connective tissue disease: presence of antibody to ribonucleoprotein containing the small nuclear ribonucleic acid U1. J Pediatr. 1983 Jun; 102(6):841-6.
Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Weintrub P, Dritz S, Goldman H, Perkins HA. Acquired immunodeficiency in an infant: possible transmission by means of blood products. Lancet. 1983 Apr 30; 1(8331):956-8.
Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Lameris-Martin NB, Ammann AJ. Effect of antibody concentration on opsonic requirements for phagocytosis in vitro of Streptococcus pneumoniae types 7 and 19. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1983 Feb; 172(2):178-86.
Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Martin DW, Wara DW. Dipyridamole and intravenous deoxycytidine therapy in a patient with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1983; 19(3):117-20.
Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Matthay KK, Caulfield MH, Schiffmann G, Mentzer WC, Ammann AJ. Increased serum opsonic activity and antibody concentration in patients with sickle cell disease after pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization. J Pediatr. 1983 Jan; 102(1):51-4.
Chudwin DS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Patients with abnormal proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets have reduced in vitro cellular immunity. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1983 Jan; 26(1):126-36.
Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ. Aspergillus pneumonia in chronic granulomatous disease: recurrence and long-term outcome. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1982 Nov; 71(6):915-7.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Barrett DJ, Stiehm ER. The DiGeorge syndrome and the fetal alcohol syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1982 Oct; 136(10):906-8.
Chudwin DS, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Phibbs RH. Posttransfusion syndrome. Rash, eosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia following intrauterine and exchange transfusions. Am J Dis Child. 1982 Jul; 136(7):612-4.
McClure JE, Lameris N, Wara DW, Goldstein AL. Immunochemical studies on thymosin: radioimmunoassay of thymosin alpha 1. J Immunol. 1982 Jan; 128(1):368-75.
Ammann AJ, Ashman RF, Buckley RH, Hardie WR, Krantmann HJ, Nelson J, Ochs H, Stiehm ER, Tiller T, Wara DW, Wedgwood R. Use of intravenous gamma-globulin in antibody immunodeficiency: results of a multicenter controlled trial. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1982 Jan; 22(1):60-7.
Barrett DJ, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Fisher TJ, Stiehm ER. Clinical and immunologic spectrum of the DiGeorge syndrome. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1981 Jul; 6(1):1-6.
Chudwin DS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Johnson AC. Lung involvement in progressive vaccinia. West J Med. 1981 May; 134(5):446-8.
Barrett DJ, Stenmark S, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Helper cell function of human fetal thymocytes. Cell Immunol. 1981 Mar 15; 59(1):17-25.
Wara DW. Host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae: the role of the spleen. Rev Infect Dis. 1981 Mar-Apr; 3(2):299-309.
Ammann AJ, Schiffman G, Addiego JE, Wara WM, Wara DW. Immunization of immunosuppressed patients with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Rev Infect Dis. 1981 Mar-Apr; 3 Suppl:S160-7.
Kondo LL, Rosenau W, Wara DW. Role of lymphotoxin in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). J Immunol. 1981 Mar; 126(3):1131-3.
Chudwin DS, Daniels TE, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Barrett DJ, Whitcher JP, Cowan MJ. Spectrum of Sjögren syndrome in children. J Pediatr. 1981 Feb; 98(2):213-7.
Cowan MJ, Fujiwara P, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Effect of thymosin on cellular immunity in old age. Mech Ageing Dev. 1981 Jan; 15(1):29-39.
Matthay KK, Mentzer WC, Wara DW, Preisler HK, Lameris NB, Ammann AJ. Evaluation of the opsonic requirements for phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes VII, XIV, and XIX by chemiluminescence assay. Infect Immun. 1981 Jan; 31(1):228-35.
Wara DW. Thymic hormones and the immune system. Adv Pediatr. 1981; 28:229-70.
Sander JE, Malamud N, Cowan MJ, Packman S, Amman AJ, Wara DW. Intermittent ataxia and immunodeficiency with multiple carboxylase deficiencies: a biotin-responsive disorder. Ann Neurol. 1980 Nov; 8(5):544-7.
Barrett DJ, Stenmark S, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Immunoregulation in aged humans. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1980 Oct; 17(2):203-11.
Barrett DJ, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ. Thymosin therapy in the DiGeorge syndrome. J Pediatr. 1980 Jul; 97(1):66-71.
Barrett DJ, Ammann AJ, Stenmark S, Wara DW. Immunoglobulin G and M antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infect Immun. 1980 Feb; 27(2):411-7.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Pillarisetty RJ, Talal N. The prevalence of autoantibodies in T-cell, B-cell, and phagocytic immunodeficiency disorders. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1979 Dec; 14(4):456-66.
Wara DW, Barrett DJ. Cell-mediated immunity in the newborn: clinical aspects. Pediatrics. 1979 Nov; 64(5 Pt 2 Suppl):822-8.
Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Packman S, Ammann AJ, Yoshino M, Sweetman L, Nyhan W. Multiple biotin-dependent carboxylase deficiencies associated with defects in T-cell and B-cell immunity. Lancet. 1979 Jul 21; 2(8134):115-8.
Wara WM, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Barnard JL, Phillips TL. Immunosuppression and reconstitution with thymosin after radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1979 Jul; 5(7):997-1001.
Barrett DJ, Bertani L, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Milk precipitins in selective IgA deficiency. Ann Allergy. 1979 Feb; 42(2):73-6.
Wara DW, Barrett DJ, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity by thymosin in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979; 332:128-34.
Wara WM, Ammann AJ, Wara DW. Effect of thymosin and irradiation on immune modulation in head and neck and esophageal cancer patients. Cancer Treat Rep. 1978 Nov; 62(11):1775-8.
Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Howie VM, Schultz L, Doyle N, Kaplan M. Pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1978 Nov; 62(5):721-7.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Allen T. Immunotherapy and immunopathologic studies in a patient with nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1978 Jul; 10(3):262-9.
Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Thymosin treatment of children with primary immunodeficiency disease. Transplant Proc. 1978 Mar; 10(1):203-9.
Daentl DL, Townsend JJ, Siegel RC, Godman JR, Piel CF, Wara DW, Bachmann RP. Familial nephrosis, hydrocephalus, thin skin, blue sclerae syndrome: clinical, structural and biochemical studies. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1978; 14(6B):315-39.
Sandman R, Ammann AJ, Grose C, Wara DW. Cellular immunodeficiency associated with nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Immunologic and biochemical studies. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1977 Sep; 8(2):247-53.
Ammann AJ, Wara WM, Wara DW, Phillips TL. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy. Radiology. 1977 Jul; 124(1):209-11.
Wara DW. Laboratory diagnosis of immunodeficiency disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1977 May; 24(2):329-39.
Greenberg D, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Kaltreider HB. Immunity to Aspergillus in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. J Pediatr. 1977 Apr; 90(4):601-3.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Pillarisetty RJ, Talal N. Autoantibody, autoimmune disease, and immunodeficiency. Arthritis Rheum. 1977 Mar; 20(2 Suppl):434-40.
Ammann AJ, Borg D, Kondo L, Wara DW. Quantitation of B cells in peripheral blood by polyacrylamide beads coated with anti-human chain antibody. J Immunol Methods. 1977; 17(3-4):365-71.
Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Editorial: Thymic cells and humoral factors as therapeutic agents. Pediatrics. 1976 May; 57(5):643-6.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Doyle NE, Golbus MS. Thymus transplantation in patients with thymic hypoplasia and abnormal immunoglobulin synthesis. Transplantation. 1975 Dec; 20(6):457-66.
Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Letter: Effect of thymosin on B-lymphocyte function. N Engl J Med. 1975 Sep 04; 293(10):507.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW. Evaluation of infants and children with recurrent infection. Curr Probl Pediatr. 1975 Sep; 5(11):3-47.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW. Letter: Maternal-fetal graft vs host reaction. J Pediatr. 1975 Aug; 87(2):329-30.
Wara WM, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Phillips TL. Serum IgA in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal and paranasal sinus carcinoma. Radiology. 1975 Aug; 116(02):409-11.
Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Lipow HW, Diamond LK. Letter: Rosette-forming cells. Lancet. 1975 Jun 07; 1(7919):1298.
Giblett ER, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Sandman R, Diamond LK. Nucleoside-phosphorylase deficiency in a child with severely defective T-cell immunity and normal B-cell immunity. Lancet. 1975 May 03; 1(7914):1010-3.
Wara WM, Wara DW, Phillips TL, Ammann AJ. Elevated IGA in carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Cancer. 1975 May; 35(5):1313-5.
Wara DW, Reiter EO, Doyle NE, Gewurz H, Ammann AJ. Persistent Clq deficiency in a patient with a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome. J Pediatr. 1975 May; 86(5):743-5.
Wara WM, Phillips TL, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Smith V. Immunosuppression following radiation therapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1975 Mar; 123(3):482-5.
Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Activation of T-cells rosettes in immunodeficient patients by thymosin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Feb 28; 249:308-15.
Wara DW, Goldstein AL, Doyle NE, Ammann AJ. Thymosin activity in patients with cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 1975 Jan 09; 292(2):70-4.
Wara DW, Golbus MS, Ammann AJ. Fetal thymus glands obtained from prostaglandin-induced abortions. Cellular immune function in vitro and evidence of in vivo thymocyte activity following transplantation. Transplantation. 1974 Nov; 18(5):387-90.
Ammann AJ, Wara D, Salmon S. Transfer factor: therapy in patients with deficient cell-mediated immunity and deficient antibody-mediated immunity. Cell Immunol. 1974 Apr; 12(1):94-101.
Wara DW, Reiter EO, Ammann AJ, Kaplan SL. Letter: T-cell rosettes in thyrotoxic Grave's disease. N Engl J Med. 1973 Nov 22; 289(21):1145-6.
Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Salmon S, Perkins H. Thymus transplantation. Permanent reconstitution of cellular immunity in a patient with sex-linked combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 1973 Jul 05; 289(1):5-9.