Stephen Rosenthal
+1 415 476-2266
+1 415 476-8214

Education and Training

Residency, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco


Millington K, Schulmeister C, Finlayson C, Grabert R, Olson-Kennedy J, Garofalo R, Rosenthal SM, Chan YM. Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics of a Cohort of Transgender and Gender-Diverse Youth in the United States. J Adolesc Health. 2020 May 13.
Olson-Kennedy J, Chan YM, Rosenthal S, Hidalgo MA, Chen D, Clark L, Ehrensaft D, Tishelman A, Garofalo R. Creating the Trans Youth Research Network: A Collaborative Research Endeavor. Transgend Health. 2019; 4(1):304-312.
Rosenthal SM, Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, Hannema SE, Meyer WJ, Murad MH, Safer JD, Tangpricha V, T'Sjoen GG. Response to Letter to the Editor: "Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 11 01; 104(11):5102-5103.
Bangalore Krishna K, Fuqua JS, Rogol AD, Klein KO, Popovic J, Houk CP, Charmandari E, Lee PA, Freire AV, Ropelato MG, Yazid Jalaludin M, Mbogo J, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Luo X, Eugster EA, Klein KO, Vogiatzi MG, Reifschneider K, Bamba V, Garcia Rudaz C, Kaplowitz P, Backeljauw P, Allen DB, Palmert MR, Harrington J, Guerra-Junior G, Stanley T, Torres Tamayo M, Miranda Lora AL, Bajpai A, Silverman LA, Miller BS, Dayal A, Horikawa R, Oberfield S, Rogol AD, Tajima T, Popovic J, Witchel SF, Rosenthal SM, Finlayson C, Hannema SE, Castilla-Peon MF, Mericq V, Medina Bravo PG. Use of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogs in Children: Update by an International Consortium. Horm Res Paediatr. 2019; 91(6):357-372.
Olson-Kennedy J, Chan YM, Garofalo R, Spack N, Chen D, Clark L, Ehrensaft D, Hidalgo M, Tishelman A, Rosenthal S. Impact of Early Medical Treatment for Transgender Youth: Protocol for the Longitudinal, Observational Trans Youth Care Study. JMIR Res Protoc. 2019 Jul 09; 8(7):e14434.
Ehrensaft D, Rosenthal SM. Sexual Assault Risk and School Facility Restrictions in Gender Minority Youth. Pediatrics. 2019 06; 143(6).
Vance SR, Rosenthal SM. A Closer Look at the Psychosocial Realities of LGBTQ Youth. Pediatrics. 2018 05; 141(5).
Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, Hannema SE, Meyer WJ, Murad MH, Rosenthal SM, Safer JD, Tangpricha V, T'Sjoen GG. ENDOCRINE TREATMENT OF GENDER-DYSPHORIC/GENDER-INCONGRUENT PERSONS: AN ENDOCRINE SOCIETY CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE. Endocr Pract. 2017 Dec; 23(12):1437.
Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, Hannema SE, Meyer WJ, Murad MH, Rosenthal SM, Safer JD, Tangpricha V, T'Sjoen GG. Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 11 01; 102(11):3869-3903.
Lopez X, Marinkovic M, Eimicke T, Rosenthal SM, Olshan JS. Statement on gender-affirmative approach to care from the pediatric endocrine society special interest group on transgender health. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2017 Aug; 29(4):475-480.
Vance SR, Deutsch MB, Rosenthal SM, Buckelew SM. Enhancing Pediatric Trainees' and Students' Knowledge in Providing Care to Transgender Youth. J Adolesc Health. 2017 Apr; 60(4):425-430.
Rosenthal SM. Transgender youth: current concepts. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Dec; 21(4):185-192.
Olson-Kennedy J, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Kreukels BP, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Garofalo R, Meyer W, Rosenthal SM. Research priorities for gender nonconforming/transgender youth: gender identity development and biopsychosocial outcomes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2016 Apr; 23(2):172-9.
Vance SR, Rosenthal SM. Treating Transgender Youth: Pushing the Dialogue Forward. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Oct; 57(4):357-8.
Bonifacio HJ, Rosenthal SM. Gender Variance and Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Aug; 62(4):1001-16.
Vance SR, Ehrensaft D, Rosenthal SM. Author's Response. Pediatrics. 2015 May; 135(5):e1366-7.
Vance SR, Halpern-Felsher BL, Rosenthal SM. Health care providers' comfort with and barriers to care of transgender youth. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Feb; 56(2):251-3.
Haller MJ, Gitelman SE, Gottlieb PA, Michels AW, Rosenthal SM, Shuster JJ, Zou B, Brusko TM, Hulme MA, Wasserfall CH, Mathews CE, Atkinson MA, Schatz DA. Anti-thymocyte globulin/G-CSF treatment preserves ß cell function in patients with established type 1 diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2015 Jan; 125(1):448-55.
Rosenthal SM. Approach to the patient: transgender youth: endocrine considerations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Dec; 99(12):4379-89.
Vance SR, Ehrensaft D, Rosenthal SM. Psychological and medical care of gender nonconforming youth. Pediatrics. 2014 Dec; 134(6):1184-92.
Lazure P, Bartel RC, Biller BM, Molitch ME, Rosenthal SM, Ross JL, Bernsten BD, Hayes SM. Contextualized analysis of a needs assessment using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case example in endocrinology. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 Jul 24; 14:319.
Herold KC, Gitelman SE, Willi SM, Gottlieb PA, Waldron-Lynch F, Devine L, Sherr J, Rosenthal SM, Adi S, Jalaludin MY, Michels AW, Dziura J, Bluestone JA. Teplizumab treatment may improve C-peptide responses in participants with type 1 diabetes after the new-onset period: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2013 Feb; 56(2):391-400.
Sherer I, Rosenthal SM, Ehrensaft D, Baum J. Child and Adolescent Gender Center: a multidisciplinary collaboration to improve the lives of gender nonconforming children and teens. Pediatr Rev. 2012 Jun; 33(6):273-5.
Cheung CC, Cadnapaphornchai MA, Ranadive SA, Gitelman SE, Rosenthal SM. Persistent elevation of urine aquaporin-2 during water loading in a child with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) caused by a R137L mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2012 Feb 10; 2012(1):3.
Ranadive SA, Rosenthal SM. Pediatric disorders of water balance. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011 Oct; 58(5):1271-80, xi-xii.
Aslan IR, Baca EA, Charlton RW, Rosenthal SM. Respiratory syncytial virus infection as a precipitant of thyroid storm in a previously undiagnosed case of graves' disease in a prepubertal girl. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011; 2011:138903.
Rochdi MD, Vargas GA, Carpentier E, Oligny-Longpré G, Chen S, Kovoor A, Gitelman SE, Rosenthal SM, von Zastrow M, Bouvier M. Functional characterization of vasopressin type 2 receptor substitutions (R137H/C/L) leading to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: implications for treatments. Mol Pharmacol. 2010 May; 77(5):836-45.
Cho YH, Gitelman S, Rosenthal S, Ambler G. Long-term outcomes in a family with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2009; 2009:431527.
Ranadive SA, Rosenthal SM. Pediatric disorders of water balance. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2009 Dec; 38(4):663-72.
Ranadive SA, Ersoy B, Favre H, Cheung CC, Rosenthal SM, Miller WL, Vaisse C. Identification, characterization and rescue of a novel vasopressin-2 receptor mutation causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Sep; 71(3):388-93.
Bremer AA, Ranadive S, Conrad SC, Vallette-Kasic S, Rosenthal SM. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency presenting as an acute neurologic emergency in a peripubertal girl. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug; 21(8):799-803.
Rosenthal SM. Statement 4: therapy should be offered to children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) whose heights are < -2.25 standard deviation (SD) score. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2008 Apr; 5 Suppl 3:847-52.
Meyer GE, Chesler L, Liu D, Gable K, Maddux BA, Goldenberg DD, Youngren JF, Goldfine ID, Weiss WA, Matthay KK, Rosenthal SM. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits insulin-like growth factor signaling, growth, and survival in human neuroblastoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2007 Dec 15; 102(6):1529-41.
Rosenthal S, Cohen P, Clayton P, Backeljauw P, Bang P, Ten S. Treatment perspectives in idiopathic short stature with a focus on IGF-I deficiency. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 May; 4 Suppl 2:252-71.
Bremer AA, Feldman BJ, Iezza G, Clark OH, Rosenthal SM. Report of a hürthle cell neoplasm in a peripubertal girl. Thyroid. 2007 Feb; 17(2):175-8.
Rosenthal SM, Feldman BJ, Vargas GA, Gitelman SE. Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD): a paradigm for activating mutations causing endocrine dysfunction. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006 Dec; 4 Suppl 1:66-70.
Gitelman SE, Feldman BJ, Rosenthal SM. Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: a novel disorder in water balance in pediatric patients. Am J Med. 2006 Jul; 119(7 Suppl 1):S54-8.
Huang EA, Feldman BJ, Schwartz ID, Geller DH, Rosenthal SM, Gitelman SE. Oral urea for the treatment of chronic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis in children. J Pediatr. 2006 Jan; 148(1):128-31.
Feldman BJ, Rosenthal SM, Vargas GA, Fenwick RG, Huang EA, Matsuda-Abedini M, Lustig RH, Mathias RS, Portale AA, Miller WL, Gitelman SE. Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. N Engl J Med. 2005 May 05; 352(18):1884-90.
Tiffin N, Adi S, Stokoe D, Wu NY, Rosenthal SM. Akt phosphorylation is not sufficient for insulin-like growth factor-stimulated myogenin expression but must be accompanied by down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Endocrinology. 2004 Nov; 145(11):4991-6.
Wilson TA, Rose SR, Cohen P, Rogol AD, Backeljauw P, Brown R, Hardin DS, Kemp SF, Lawson M, Radovick S, Rosenthal SM, Silverman L, Speiser P. Update of guidelines for the use of growth hormone in children: the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrinology Society Drug and Therapeutics Committee. J Pediatr. 2003 Oct; 143(4):415-21.
Adi S, Bin-Abbas B, Wu NY, Rosenthal SM. Early stimulation and late inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation by IGF-I: a potential mechanism mediating the switch in IGF-I action on skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Endocrinology. 2002 Feb; 143(2):511-6.
Adi S, Wu NY, Rosenthal SM. Growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and p70(S6K) is differentially inhibited by LY294002 and Wortmannin. Endocrinology. 2001 Jan; 142(1):498-501.
Cheng ZQ, Adi S, Wu NY, Hsiao D, Woo EJ, Filvaroff EH, Gustafson TA, Rosenthal SM. Functional inactivation of the IGF-I receptor delays differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. J Endocrinol. 2000 Oct; 167(1):175-82.
Adi S, Cheng ZQ, Zhang PL, Wu NY, Mellon SH, Rosenthal SM. Opposing early inhibitory and late stimulatory effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on myogenin gene transcription. J Cell Biochem. 2000 Jun 12; 78(4):617-26.
Roll U, Turck CW, Gitelman SE, Rosenthal SM, Nolte MS, Masharani U, Ziegler AG, Baekkeskov S. Peptide mapping and characterisation of glycation patterns of the glima 38 antigen recognised by autoantibodies in Type I diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2000 May; 43(5):598-608.
Devoe DJ, Miller WL, Conte FA, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM, Rosenthal SM, Wilson CB, Gitelman SE. Long-term outcome in children and adolescents after transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct; 82(10):3196-202.
Rabinovici J, Cataldo NA, Dandekar P, Rosenthal SM, Gargosky SE, Gesundheit N, Martin MC. Adjunctive growth hormone during ovarian hyperstimulation increases levels of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in follicular fluid: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Apr; 82(4):1171-6.
Hernández-Sánchez C, Werner H, Roberts CT, Woo EJ, Hum DW, Rosenthal SM, LeRoith D. Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor gene expression by IGF-I and basic fibroblastic growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 21; 272(8):4663-70.
Rosenthal SM, Cheng ZQ. Opposing early and late effects of insulin-like growth factor I on differentiation and the cell cycle regulatory retinoblastoma protein in skeletal myoblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Oct 24; 92(22):10307-11.
Burch GH, Bedolli MA, McDonough S, Rosenthal SM, Bristow J. Embryonic expression of tenascin-X suggests a role in limb, muscle, and heart development. Dev Dyn. 1995 Aug; 203(4):491-504.
Silverman LA, Cheng ZQ, Hsiao D, Rosenthal SM. Skeletal muscle cell-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins inhibit IGF-I-induced myogenesis in rat L6E9 cells. Endocrinology. 1995 Feb; 136(2):720-6.
Rosenthal SM, Hsiao D, Silverman LA. An insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) analog with highly selective affinity for IGF-II receptors stimulates differentiation, but not IGF-I receptor down-regulation in muscle cells. Endocrinology. 1994 Jul; 135(1):38-44.
Rosenthal SM, Brown EJ. Mechanisms of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II-induced IGF-I receptor down-regulation in BC3H-1 muscle cells. J Endocrinol. 1994 Apr; 141(1):69-74.
Uyeki TM, Barry FL, Rosenthal SM, Mathias RS. Successful treatment with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride in an infant with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Pediatr Nephrol. 1993 Oct; 7(5):554-6.
Goodman PA, Sbraccia P, Brunetti A, Wong KY, Carter JD, Rosenthal SM, Goldfine ID. Growth factor receptor regulation in the Minn-1 leprechaun: defects in both insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor gene expression. Metabolism. 1992 May; 41(5):504-9.
Brown EJ, Hsiao D, Rosenthal SM. Induction and peak gene expression of insulin-like growth factor II follow that of myogenin during differentiation of BC3H-1 muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Mar 31; 183(3):1084-9.
Hartmann KK, Baier TG, Papa V, Kronenwett M, Brown EJ, Goldfine ID, Rosenthal SM. A monoclonal antibody to the T-cell receptor increases IGF-I receptor content in normal T-lymphocytes: comparison with phytohemagglutinin. J Cell Biochem. 1992 Jan; 48(1):81-5.
Rosenthal SM, Silverman BL, Wehrenberg WB. Exogenous growth hormone inhibits bovine but not murine pituitary growth hormone secretion in vitro: evidence for a direct feedback of growth hormone on the pituitary. Neuroendocrinology. 1991 Jun; 53(6):597-600.
Rosenthal SM, Brown EJ, Brunetti A, Goldfine ID. Fibroblast growth factor inhibits insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene expression and increases IGF-I receptor abundance in BC3H-1 muscle cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1991 May; 5(5):678-84.
Papa V, Hartmann KK, Rosenthal SM, Maddux BA, Siiteri PK, Goldfine ID. Progestins induce down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors in human breast cancer cells: potential autocrine role of IGF-II. Mol Endocrinol. 1991 May; 5(5):709-17.
Rosenthal SM, Brunetti A, Brown EJ, Mamula PW, Goldfine ID. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor expression during muscle cell differentiation. Potential autocrine role of IGF-II. J Clin Invest. 1991 Apr; 87(4):1212-9.
Hartmann KK, Papa V, Brown EJ, Doerries U, Rosenthal SM, Goldfine ID. A rapid and simple one step method for isolation of poly(A)+ RNA from cells in monolayer. Endocrinology. 1990 Oct; 127(4):2038-40.
Rosenthal SM, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Short term continuous intravenous infusion of growth hormone (GH) inhibits GH-releasing hormone-induced GH secretion: a time-dependent effect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Jun; 68(6):1101-5.
Hulse JA, Rosenthal SM, Cuttler L, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. The effect of pulsatile administration, continuous infusion, and diurnal variation on the growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Oct; 63(4):872-8.
Rosenthal SM, Hulse JA, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Exogenous growth hormone inhibits growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in normal men. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jan; 77(1):176-80.
Gondos B, Egli CA, Rosenthal SM, Grumbach MM. Testicular changes in gonadotropin-independent familial male sexual precocity. Familial testotoxicosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1985 Nov; 109(11):990-5.
Egli CA, Rosenthal SM, Grumbach MM, Montalvo JM, Gondos B. Pituitary gonadotropin-independent male-limited autosomal dominant sexual precocity in nine generations: familial testotoxicosis. J Pediatr. 1985 Jan; 106(1):33-40.
Schriock EA, Lustig RH, Rosenthal SM, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Effect of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) on plasma GH in relation to magnitude and duration of GH deficiency in 26 children and adults with isolated GH deficiency or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies: evidence for hypothalamic GRH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jun; 58(6):1043-9.
Rosenthal SM, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL. Gonadotropin-independent familial sexual precocity with premature Leydig and germinal cell maturation (familial testotoxicosis): effects of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy in four cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Sep; 57(3):571-9.
Rosenthal SM, Schriock EA, Kaplan SL, Guillemin R, Grumbach MM. Synthetic human pancreas growth hormone-releasing factor (hpGRF1-44-NH2) stimulates growth hormone secretion in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Sep; 57(3):677-9.
Rosenthal SM, Reid IA, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Renin substrate depletion in salt-losing congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia: low plasma renin activity despite increased renin concentration. J Pediatr. 1983 Jan; 102(1):80-2.